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【yabovip】国家电网千亿美元超高压输电方案引争议

2020年11月22日 - 科技

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Chinas state-controlled grid operator is proposing to invest roughly $100 billion on technology to transmit electricity over long distances─presenting President Xi Jinpings administration with an important test of how it treats Chinas biggest government-controlled companies.中国政府掌控的电网运营商明确提出投资大约1,000亿美元用作研发长距离电缆技术。此举给习近平派的新一届政府出有了一道最重要考题,外界可以借此显现出新一届政府将如何对待中国仅次于的几家政府掌控的企业。The infrastructure project, among the most expensive ever proposed in China, has stirred debate among energy experts. State Grid Corp. of China says building a nationwide network of ultrahigh-voltage transmission lines will reduce power losses when transporting electricity over long distances. That will enable power producers to place dirty, coal-burning power stations nearer to mines rather than cities, cutting urban air pollution. The lines will also allow China to tap renewable wind and hydro resources in remote regions.这一基础设施项目可以却是中国目前为止明确提出的成本最低的一个项目,同时也在能源专家中引起争议。

中国国家电网公司(State Grid Corp. of China)说道,在全国范围内建设一个超强高压输电线路网络需要在长距离电缆时减少功率损耗。这样发电厂就能将污染相当严重的燃煤电厂座落在离煤矿较将近的地方,而不是附近城市,这能增加城市空气污染。这样的超强高压输电线路还能令其中国利用偏远地区的风电和水电等可再生能源。

But skeptics question the projects viability and its high costs. Others criticize the plan because they say a big state investment would strengthen State Grids position when many want it broken up as a precursor to making electricity pricing more market-oriented.但怀疑者批评该项目的可行性及其高昂的成本。其他人抨击这一计划则是因为在他们显然,政府展开这样一大笔投资不会更进一步稳固国家电网的地位。

眼下很多人期望拆分国家电网,以此作为电价定价市场化程度提升的前奏。The project could have repercussions abroad. The company has spent heavily on assets in Australia, Portugal and Brazil in recent years, and company executives are eager to apply expertise in ultrahigh-voltage transmissions to other emerging economies, such as Brazil, that may choose to transport electricity over long distances.该项目有可能在国外产生反响。

国家电网近年来在澳大利亚、葡萄牙和巴西的资产上投放巨资,该公司高管渴求将其在超高压电缆方面的专业技术应用于到巴西等其它新兴经济体上。这些新兴经济体有可能自由选择长距离电缆方案。Analysts say whether the government fully embraces rolling out State Grids proposed ultrahigh-voltage network will send a signal about the approach of Chinas new leaders toward state monopolies, which have been instrumental in building Chinas economy rapidly but are widely considered to be rife with corruption and inefficiency. State Grid supplies power to 1.1 billion people, and it has more than $350 billion in assets and 1.9 million employees.分析师说道,无论中国政府最后否不会几乎接纳国家电网明确提出的超高压电缆网络方案,此事都将释放出来一个信号,即中国新一代领导人不会如何应付国有独占企业。在中国经济快速增长的过程中,国有独占企业充分发挥了起到,但普遍认为此类企业贪腐流行且效率低落。

国家电网向国内11亿民众供电,其资产规模多达3,500亿美元,员工数量为190万人。Whether Mr. Xi seeks to overhaul State Grid will be a test of the new government, whether their reform agenda actually goes into the energy sector or whether they think its too difficult technically or politically, says Philip Andrews-Speed, who researches China energy governance at the National University of Singapore.新加坡国立大学(National University of Singapore)研究中国能源管理的安德鲁斯-斯彼得(Philip Andrews-Speed)说道,习近平否想改革国家电网将沦为放在新一届中国政府面前的一道考题。借此可以显现出其改革议程否知道想投身于能源业,也可以显现出他们否指出这一改革在技术上或政治上可玩性过大。

Discussions are under way to introduce greater competition and improve the performance of Chinas most important state-owned enterprises more broadly in the economy as well.目前正在辩论的内容还包括,引进更加多竞争,更加普遍地提高中国经济中最重要的国有企业的绩效。Then-Premier Wen Jiabao last year criticized the lack of rivals for Chinas state-controlled banks. In March Chinese leaders announced a shake-up of the countrys troubled railroads and eliminated the railways ministry. Breaking up the once-powerful ministry, which had sagged beneath heavy debt and been stung by corruption allegations, was seen by analysts as a step toward introducing greater competition in the sector. The government also has taken modest steps to liberalize a telecommunications industry long dominated by three state-run providers. Beijing says it will require the carriers to lease out services on their networks to private companies.去年,时任中国总理的温家宝曾抨击中国国有银行缺少竞争对手。今年3月,中国领导人宣告陷入困境的铁路系统展开根本性人事调整,并撤消了铁道部。

在分析师显然,拆分曾多次权力极大的铁道部是朝在铁道系统引进更加多竞争的方向迈进了一步。铁道部身负了沈重的债务开销,同时颇受诸多腐败问题后遗症。

中国政府也早已采行保守措施放松长期以来被三大国有运营商掌控的电信业。北京回应,它将拒绝运营商对民营企业租赁其网络上的部分服务。

Questions over electricity supply and a potential overhaul of the power grid are particularly sensitive in China, where power-intensive industries are crucial to economic growth and a reliable power supply is a basic requirement for manufacturers of everything from clothing to iPhones.有关电力供应以及有可能对电网展开根本性改革的问题在中国最为脆弱。在中国,用电大户行业对中国经济快速增长十分关键,而可信的电力供应对于各类生产企业来说都是一项基本拒绝,无论其生产的是服装还是iPhone。

During Chinas annual parliamentary session in March, State Grid Chairman Liu Zhenya promoted ultrahigh-voltage technology as central to reducing hazardous levels of fine particulate matter in the air. The company and industry analysts say the network also would relieve the strain on railways, which carry coal from the less densely populated North and West to power plants in population centers of the East.今年3月全国两会开会期间,国家电网公司董事长刘振亚明确提出,超高压电缆技术是减少空气中危害的细小颗粒物水平的关键。国家电网和行业分析师说道,这一电缆网络也能减低铁路系统的压力。

目前,火车将煤从人口密度较低的西北部地区运到东部人口中心的发电厂。Our national conditions require this kind of technology, says Zhang Zhengling, deputy director of State Grids development-and-planning department.国家电网发展策划部副主任张正陵说道,我们的国情要求我们必须这种技术。

The company was formed in 2002 through the breakup of the former China State Power Corp. into separate entities responsible for either power generation or transmission and distribution. The company covers vast swaths of territory, from remote Tibetan communities in the Himalayas to manufacturing centers on the East Coast. A second company, China Southern Power Grid Co., controls transmission and distribution in parts of southern China.该公司于2002年重新组建,当时前中国国家电力公司一分成多个实体,分别负责管理发电和输配电。该公司覆盖面积大片地区,从偏僻的喜马拉雅山藏区到东部沿海的制造业中心。另有一家公司中国南方电网有限责任公司(China Southern Power Grid Co.)掌控着中国南方部分地区的输配电。

State Grid over the past decade consolidated its dominant position as it extended its network to keep pace with breakneck economic growth and soaring power production. From 2010 to last year, China added around 180 gigawatts of power-generating capacity─more than Germanys overall capacity in 2010.过去10年中,国家电网不断扩大网络规模,以便跟上中国飞速的经济快速增长和大大攀升的电力生产。从2010年到去年,中国追加发电容量大约1.8亿千瓦,比德国2010年的总发电容量还要低。Ultrahigh-voltage transmission is one of State Grids most ambitious initiatives. The company began operating three ultrahigh-voltage lines in recent years and four others are under construction.超高压电缆是国家电网最宏伟的计划之一。近年来,该公司开始运营三条超强高压输电线路,另有四条在施工建设中。

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State Grid is seeking approval for at least 14 additional lines that would require more than 350 billion yuan, or roughly $55 billion, in investment. Overall investment in State Grids proposed ultrahigh-voltage network would top 584 billion yuan ($95 billion), it says.国家电网另有最少14个电缆线路建设项目正在谋求取得批准后,总计必须投资逾人民币3,500亿元。国家电网说道,该公司中环线的超高压电缆网络总投资将约人民币5,840亿元。

China isnt the first country to experiment with ultrahigh-voltage transmission. The U.S., Japan and the former Soviet Union experimented with ultrahigh-voltage technology in recent decades. But a variety of factors, including stagnant power demand, meant lines werent rolled out as widely as has been proposed in China.中国并非第一个尝试超高压电缆的国家。将近几十年中,美国、日本和前苏联都曾尝试过超高压技术。但由于各种因素,还包括电力市场需求停滞不前,这些国家超强高压输电线路的规模都不及中国中环线的规模大。State Grids scale is widely credited as a reason China has been able to build its network so rapidly over the past decade and helps ensure that the power supply in manufacturing centers keeps pace with demand.国家电网的规模被普遍认为是过去10年中国需要很快建构网络,确保制造业中心的电力供应可以符合市场需求的原因之一。

But as Chinese growth moderates, Mr. Xis government has a new priority. It wants to rebalance the Chinese economy away from a lopsided reliance on government investment and exports and toward greater domestic consumption. Ensuring that industrial and commercial electricity consumers are charged a fair rate is pivotal to that transformation.但随着中国经济快速增长上升,习近平领导的政府有了一个新的首要任务。政府期望构建中国经济从相当严重倚赖政府投资和出口到内需夹住的转型。

保证对工业和商业电力消费者收费合理对构建经济转型至关重要。But linking grid fees more closely with coal prices is a challenge, analysts say. Chinese power generators earnings have been squeezed in recent years by high prices for coal, their main feedstock. The companies have struggled to pass rising costs onto consumers as grid fees remain regulated.但分析人士说道,将电价与煤价更加密切地挂勾是一项挑战。近年来,中国发电企业的收益因低煤价而受到断裂。

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煤炭是发电企业的主要原料。由于电价仍受到监管部门的掌控,发电企业仍然无法将大大下降的成本转嫁给消费者。

Structural issues also have hampered pricing changes. Because State Grid has a monopoly on buying and selling electricity across most of the country, it is able to justify charging end users higher electricity prices by overstating its transmission and distribution costs, according to some analysts. They say regulators have struggled to ascertain State Grids true costs and profit as electricity moves through the grid.各种结构性问题也仍然在妨碍定价的调整。据一些分析人士说道,由于国家电网在中国大部分地区的电力交易中占有独占地位,它能通过高估输配电成本为自己向最终用户缴纳更高的电价寻找理由。他们说道,由于电力在电网中传输,监管机构仍然难以确定国家电网的现实成本和利润。

You cant get a rationale pricing structure until you can force State Grid to unveil what its costs are, says Arthur Kroeber, managing director of economic research firm GaveKal Dragonomics.经济研究公司龙洲经讯(GaveKal Dragonomics)董事总经理葛艺豪(Arthur Kroeber)说道,除非能被迫国家电网发布其成本,否则无法获得一个合理的定价结构。State Grid says regulators sit in its Beijing headquarters and are aware of the companys costs and earnings.国家电网说道,监管人员就躺在其北京总部内,确切其成本和盈利情况。Early signals from Chinas new leadership suggest that a push for power overhaul is on the way. At the National Peoples Congress, Chinas government said it would merge the National Energy Administration with the State Electricity Regulatory Commission. Analysts say combining the regulators would strengthen the NEA as it seeks electricity-sector changes partially directed at State Grid.中国新一代领导人收到的早期信号表明,将要开始前进电力改革。在全国人大上,中国政府说道,将把国家电力监管委员会划归国家能源局。

分析人士说道,目前国家能源局于是以谋求展开电力行业改革,部分是针对国家电网,将这两家监管机构合二为一有可能不断扩大国家能源局的权力。Concerns over power reliability continue to weigh on the government, says Lin Boqiang, who runs the China Center for Energy Economics Research at Xiamen University and advises Beijing on energy issues. The underlying fear is that too aggressive an overhaul could disrupt power supply, which in turn could threaten economic or social stability.厦门大学中国能源经济研究中心主任、在能源问题上为北京获取建议的林伯强说道,环绕电力可靠性的忧虑之后给政府带给重压;显然的担忧是过分保守的改革可能会妨碍电力供应,进而有可能威胁经济或社会平稳。People know in general what needs to be done, Mr. Lin says. The point is, at this moment, its very confusing.林伯强说道,人们大体告诉必须做到些什么,但问题是目前的局面十分恐慌。

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